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Showing posts with label Trivia. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Trivia. Show all posts

Establishing Rapport: I Am On Your Side

To establish rapport is to establish a relationship of mutual trust. Rapport plays an important role when detectives question witnesses. Establishing rapport is the first step to getting people to open up to you. Certain useful methods exist for persuading or befriending someone.
The simplest method is [to eat something together.] People open up more easily when they are performing [instinctual] actions rather than [social] ones. Just before they sleep or just after they wake, in the toilet, and during a meal, people are psychologically defenseless. This is the reason groups of school friends naturally [eat lunch together], and the reason two people [have a meal together] at the start of a blind date.
More specific conversation methods also exist. The technique of [repeating someone’s words] to show you are listening attentively is called [backtracking]. When using backtracking, it is not advisable to parrot their words exactly. It is better to respond using slight variations. This gives them the feeling you are [listening closely].
Most people can talk comfortably and continuously about things they like. They may more easily open up to you if you figure out [what they like] and ask them questions about it. 
Another useful method is imitating the person’s actions. This is called [mirroring]. These methods send the message [I am on your side], on a subconscious level. They are useful aids in establishing rapport and gaining access to someone’s heart.

Best Way To Get Your Password: Social Engineering

In 2003, Ebay users received an email that their account were about to be suspended unless they update their credit card information. The attacker had set up a similar looking website in order to trick the users that they were accessing the legitimate website. A number of people had their credit card information compromised. Information were obtained without the hacker even trying to crack Ebay's servers.

Hello there buddy. I just need your credit card information.

In 2012, a hacker in a devcon event tried to hack a Wal-mart executive in just 20 minutes. He got every detailed information about the executive within that time span just by using his social engineering skills and a little bit of technical tools of the trade. The executive was compromised when he was called and he gave out all the information that the hacker needed. Computer OS version, Web Browser version and Anti Virus Software. Finally he was asked to fill out an online survey form which completed the exploit. This was done at devcon with hundreds of people watching the attack as it happened.

Yes Sir, please click that link. Thank you very much. We're done.

These incidents were made by a hacker which had no direct access to the system's server. This method is by far, easier and more practical because it gave the hacker a broader access to the victim's profile which may directly relate to how he secures his/her online identity. Cracking a system with hacking tools may take time and may not even be successful at worst.

One of the greatest hackers of all time, Kevin Mitnick (who later turned into a security consultant) was, at one time, the most wanted man in America. He gained unauthorized access to various network and systems by using his social engineering skills. He believed that the weakest link in computer security is the human element.

In order to protect yourself from such attacks, you must first know thy enemy.

Commonly Used Social Engineering Techniques

Method of acquiring usernames, passwords, credit card information etc. by sending fraudulent emails to users and redirecting them to a non-legitimate website which may collect personal information from them.

Quid Pro Quo
It means "Something for Something"

  • An attacker calls random numbers at a company, claiming to be calling back from technical support. Eventually this person will hit someone with a legitimate problem, grateful that someone is calling back to help them. The attacker will "help" solve the problem and, in the process, have the user type commands that give the attacker access or launch malware.
  • In a 2003 information security survey, 90% of office workers gave researchers what they claimed was their password in answer to a survey question in exchange for a cheap pen. Similar surveys in later years obtained similar results using chocolates and other cheap lures, although they made no attempt to validate the passwords
This is also known as the physical or the real world Trojan Horse. It uses physical media such as USB, CDs and other removable drives as an attack vector. This kind of attack relies heavily on malware and other malicious codes in order to carry out its goal. This may also trigger a wave of infection, affecting a large number of victims in a short span of time.

Now that we have known thy enemy, we can now protect ourselves from the threat.

Yes we can put him out of work.

How To Protect Yourself From Social Engineering Attacks

  • Create a strong and unique password by using combinations of upper and lowercase letters, characters and numbers. 
  • Do not use easy to guess passwords such as your dog's name or your mothers maiden name.
  • Do not use the same password for multiple sites.
Browser Security
  • Always log out of devices which you do not own.
  • Regularly update your web browsers. They regularly do updates in order to patch malicious exploits.
  • Always look for the HTTPS when logging on websites that require personal information.
  • Do not click on unfamiliar links.
Computer Security
  • Regularly scan your computer for viruses.
  • Do not install any unfamiliar applications which may execute malicious codes on your operating system.
  • Unless you know what you are doing, steer away from pirated software.
  • Do not entrust the security of your computer to strangers.
  • Trust only certified technicians when it comes to your PC's maintenance or repair.
Remember, with a little bit of common sense and technical know-how, you can protect yourself from malicious hackers who exploit the human weakness in order to get personal information for their own gains.

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Body Language: Mirroring

Mirroring in Psychology is the behavior in which one person copies another person while in social interaction with them. It may include miming gestures, breathing, posture, pace of speech, direction of feet pointing, expressions, and choice of words. Mirroring is often observed among couples and close friends. It can also be used to initiate rapport with a person.

In the image, as an example, Hannibal demonstrates postural mirror-image mirroring in an attempt to employ rapport on his client. It is indeed called mirror image as imitating movements when you would see yourself in the mirror. The client’s right leg over left while Hannibal’s left leg over left is a good demonstration of a postural mirror-image mirroring. 
It’s beautiful how the creators of Hannibal employed Psychology in it, because Hannibal Lecter is a psychiatrist in Hannibal, utilizing the branch of body language even in the most subtle manner such as those which may come unnoticeable, but would be valuable and effective. 
Types of Mirroring
     Crossover mirroring occurs where one person’s movement is matched with another type of action, sound, or different movement.
     Direct mirroring occurs where a person is facing right on at another. It is used by lovers, people with high familiarity or interest in one another such as opponents in a contest.
     Postural mirror-image mirroring occurs where one person’s left side “matches” the other person’s right side shows strong rapport and typically affinity or empathy and increasing your own synchronicity with someone can also smooth conversation.
     Incongruency can be mirrored for rapport. If someone says “Great” but looks or sounds downtrodden, a mirroring reply would be to incongruently say “Good” with a similar down attitude like them.

Five Things You Should Know About Body Language

Excerpts taken from the book, “What Every Body Is Saying" by Joe Navarro. 
1. EYES 
“When we like something we see, our pupils dilate; when we don’t, they constrict. We have no conscious control over our pupils, and they respond both to external stimuli (for example, changes in light) and internal stimuli (such as thoughts) in fractions of a second.”
“When we become aroused, are surprised, or are suddenly confronted, our eyes open up—not only do they widen, but the pupils also quickly dilate to let in the maximum amount of available light, thus sending the maximum amount of visual information to the brain… Once we have a moment to process the information and if it is perceived negatively… in a fraction of a second the pupils will constrict.”
“Any decrease in the size of the eyes, whether through squinting or pupillary constriction, is a form of subconscious blocking behavior. And all blocking behaviors are indicative of concern, dislike, disagreement, or the perception of a potential threat.”

“We use shoulder shrugs to indicate lack of knowledge or doubt. Look for both shoulders to rise; when only one side rises, the message is dubious.”
“Partial shoulder shrugs indicate lack of commitment or insecurity.”
“If you see a person’s shoulders only partially rise or if only one shoulder rises, chance are the individual is not limbically committed to what he or she is saying and is probably being evasive or even deceptive.”

“Hand steepling may well be the most powerful high-confidence tell. It involves touching the spread fingertips of both hands, in a gesture similar to “praying hands,” but the fingers are not interlocked and the palms may not be touching.”
“I see women steepling under the table or very low, undermining the confidence they genuinely possess. I hope that as they recognize the power of the steeple as an indicator of self-assurance, competence, and confidence—traits most individuals would want to be recognized as possessing—more women will embrace this gesture and display it above the table.”

“Often seen with high-status individuals, the thumb sticking out of the pocket is a high-confidence display.”
“When individuals carry their thumbs high, it is a sign that they think highly of themselves and/or are confident in their thoughts or present circumstances. Thumbs up is another example of a gravity-defying gesture, a type of nonverbal behavior normally associated with comfort and high confidence.”
“Feelings of low confidence can be evidenced when a person (usually a male) puts his hands in his pocket and lets the fingers hang out on the side… this signal says, ‘I am very unsure of myself.’”

“Leg crossing is a particularly accurate barometer of how comfortable we feel around another personWe normally cross our legs when we feel comfortable. The sudden presence of someone we don’t like will cause us to uncross our legs.”
“When people sit side-by-side, the direction of their leg crosses becomes significant.”
“Here’s an interesting feature of leg crossing. We usually do it subconsciously in favor of the person we like the most.”

There you have it. The five things you should know and pay attention to when you’re studying body language. Focusing on these five will help you pay attention to even the most subtle of movements.


Navarro, J. (2008). What Every BODY is Saying. America: HarperCollins.

Panthera Hybrid


   There are four living species of Panthera genus, namely: Panthera Leo (Lion), Panthera Tigris (Tiger), Panthera Onca (Jaguar), and Panthera Pardus (Leopard). These species can produce hybrid crosses which means, an offspring resulting from the mating of two genetically distinct individuals. 
   Names of these hybrids are produced either by compounding the names of the two species or sometimes by associating it with some traditional name. Below here are the list of hybrid cross between the four living Panthera genus.

(Photo source: Wikipedia)

Male Tiger

 • Tigon a hybrid cross between a male tiger and a lioness.   
 • Tiguar the crossbreeding of a male tiger and a female jaguar.
 • Tigard the crossbreeding of a male tiger and a female leopard.
 • Taliger the crossbreeding of a male tiger and a female  liger.
 • Titigon the crossbreeding of a male tiger and a female tigon. 

Male Jaguar

 • Jagger produced by crossbreeding a male jaguar and female tiger. There has been no report of the birth of this hybrid.
 • Jaglion or jaguon is the offspring between a male jaguar and a female lion (lioness).
 • Jagupard, jagulep, or jagleop, is the hybrid of a jaguar and a leopardess. A single rosetted, female jagupard was produced at a zoo in Chicago. 

Male Leopard

 • Leoger or Dogla is a natural hybrid offspring of a male leopard and female tiger or possibly a leopard with aberrant patterns.
 • Leopon is a hybrid resulting from the crossing of a male leopard with a lioness. The head of the animal is similar to that of a lion while the rest of the body carries similarities to leopards.
 • Leguar is a hybrid resulting from the crossing of a male leopard with a female Jaguar.
 • Leoliguar is the result When the fertile offspring of a male lion and female jaguar (Liguar) mates with a leopard.

Male Lion

• Ligers, crossbreed between male lion and female tiger, can be over 4m long and are the largest cats in the world.
• Lipard or Liard is the proper term for a hybrid of a male lion with a leopardess. It is sometimes known as a reverse leopon. The size difference between a male lion and a leopardess usually makes their mating difficult.
• Liguar an offspring of a male lion and a female jaguar.
• Liliger an offspring of a male lion and a female liger.
• Litigon an offspring of a male lion and a female liger.

Random Animal Trivia

(Photo Source: Photobucket)

Random Trivia About Animals

1. If an ant was the same size as us, it would be twice as fast as a Lamborghini.

2. A rat can last longer without water than a camel can.

3. Slugs have four noses.

4. Tigers cannot purr. To show happiness, tigers squint or close their eyes.

5. Starfish is the wrong way to call a starfish, it should be 'Seastar'.

6. Jellyfish is not a fish, it is an echinoderms. The correct term is 'Seajelly'.

7. Secretariat was the first race horse to win the U.S. Triple Crown on June 9, 1973. They also made a movie about his life.

8. You can hear a Lion’s roar up to 5 miles away.

9. Small animals, like ants, cannot die by falling from any height.

10. Sarah, the fastest animal on land, is a speedy cheetah from Cincinnati Zoo who sprinted 100m in 6.13seconds. Over 3 seconds faster than Usian Bolt (9.58s).

11. There is a snake called Boomslang and its venom disables the blood clotting process and the victim may well die as a result of internal and external bleeding.

12. Elephants can die of a broken heart if a mate dies. They refuse to eat and will lay down, shedding tears until they starve to death.

13. When cats blink slowly at you, it is a sign of affection referred to as a "cat kiss."

14. To attract a female hippopotamus, the male poops and pees while spinning his tail to spray it around.

15. Lobsters resort to cannibalism while in captivity. This is why they have their claws secured with rubber bands in tanks at restaurants.

16. There are more than 260 known species of monkeys in the world.

17. Sea Otters keep rocks under their armpits. They carry their 'favorite rock' to smash open shellfish and clams, at a rate of up to 45 blows in 15 seconds.

18. Sea Otters do 'hold hands' when they sleep, so as to not drift apart in ocean currents.

19. Mother Sea Otters whose pups have died have been observed carrying the corpse for day, in apparent mourning.
20. Laika, originally named Kudryavka (Little Curly), is a russian street dog and the first living animal to be sent into space on November 3, 1957 at 2:30AM.

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